As you may have guessed, rigging is a pretty intensive process. You need to be technically minded and creative at the same time. The best riggers I’ve ever met are the sort of people who fit this description and have an eye for the big picture. Well, regardless of whether you’re one of these people, the best way to understand the full process of rigging is to actually create a rig of your own. The examples throughout the rest of this section are done with a simple stick figure character that I like to use for creating quick animations that test body language and timing. I love animating with stick figures, even in 3D. Ninety percent of an animated character’s personality comes through in that character’s body language. Animating with stick figures allows you to focus on that essential step and keeps you from getting distracted with secondary details.
This stick figure, in both rigged and unrigged versions, is included with this tutorial. You can download both the unrigged stickman and rigged stickman. With them, you have a starting point to practice with, as well as finished reference. Of course, if you have a character already modeled and want to rig it, that’s great. You can use the techniques here for rigging nearly anything.
Building Stickman’s centerline
If you load the
stickman_unrigged.blend file in Blender, the first thing you might notice is his pose. He’s standing up with his arms out to his sides. This stance is referred to as a T pose because the character looks like the letter T. This pose is probably the most common one that modelers use when they create their characters, and it’s the most preferred pose for riggers. Some modelers may also model with the arms at the sides, or sometimes they have the arms somewhere halfway between the T pose and having arms at the side. There are valid reasons people give for any of these poses, but ultimately it really comes down to personal preference.
It’s time to get an armature in this mesh. A good way to start is to create the centerline bones first: the body bones, the head, and the hipbone. To create these bones, use the following steps:
Add your armature and start with the first body bone (Shift+A→Armature→Single Bone).
Enable X-Ray viewing for the armature (Armature Properties→Display→X-Ray).
This step ensures that you can always see the bones of your armature.
Tab into Edit mode and move this bone up in the Z-axis until it’s around Stickman’s waistline (G→Z).
Select the tail of this bone and move it up in the Z-axis until it’s at the top of the torso (right-click, G→Z).
Remember from Chapter 11 that the small end of the bone is the tail.
Subdivide this bone into two bones (right-click the bone, W→Subdivide).
Name the bottom bone
body.1and the top bone
Select the joint between the two bones and move it back along the Y-axis a little bit (right-click, G→Y).
This step helps the bones match the natural curvature of the spine.
Select the tail of
body.2and extrude it up in the Z-axis to the top of Stickman’s head (right-click, E→Z).
Name this bone
Select the head of
body.1and extrude it down in the Z-axis to the bottom of Stickman’s pelvis (right-click, E→Z).
Remember from Chapter 11 that the large end of the bone is its head.
- Name this bone
You have something that looks like the following figure.
Adding Stickman’s appendages
The next step is to create bones for the arms and the legs. You do so by creating bones for half of the rig and then letting Blender do the rest of the work for you by mirroring the bones. First things first, though — you have to create that first half of the rig:
- Switch to the front view, select the
headbone, and duplicate it, putting its root at Stickman’s left shoulder joint (Numpad 1, right-click, Shift→D).
Note that by working this way, the new bone is an offset child of the
Name this new bone
Select the tail of
arm_upper.Land move it to Stickman’s elbow.
It may help to press Ctrl to guarantee that the bone is perfectly horizontal (right-click, G→Ctrl).
Extrude from this tail to create a new bone along the X-axis that extends to Stickman’s hand (E→X).
Name this new bone
From the front view, select the
hipbone and duplicate it, placing the new bone’s head at the top of Stickman’s left leg (Numpad 1, right-click, Shift+D).
For the time-being, this duplicated bone has the name
hip.001’s tail and move it along the Z-axis to Stickman’s feet (right-click, G→Z).
Select the main part of
hip.001and subdivide it into two bones (right-click, W→Subdivide).
Re-name the top bone from
leg_upper.Land name the bottom bone
Select the joint between these bones and move it forward in the Y-axis a little bit (right-click, G→Y).
This step gives the knee a little bit of bend, which helps deformation when adding constraints.
hip, Ctrl+P→Keep Offset).
You now have something that looks like this.
Now for the really cool part of letting Blender do the work for you. You want to select all the bones that aren’t on the centerline, duplicate them, and mirror them along the X-axis. Here are the specific hotkeys and steps:
Select both arm bones and both leg bones using Border Select (B).
Duplicate the selected bones and immediately press Esc (Shift+D, Esc).
The newly created bones appear in the exact same location as their originators. Furthermore, they’re still selected. You take advantage of this in the next step.
- Have Blender automatically give these new bones the
.Rsuffix to indicate that they’re on the right side (W→Flip Names).
All your bones are properly named now, but half of them are still in the wrong part of the rig. The next step is where the magic lies.
Enable the X-Axis Mirror check box in the Tool Shelf (Tool Shelf→Options Tab→Armature Options→X-Axis Mirror).
Select all bones (A→A).
Grab your bones and immediately escape out of it (G→Esc).
Pow! Instantly, your bones pop to their correct places and your rig now looks like what’s in this figure.
As an astute reader, you may find yourself wondering why you didn’t use Blender’s Mirror operator (Ctrl+M) to flip Stickman’s arms and legs to the correct side of his body. Unfortunately, sometimes the Mirror operation messes up the roll angle of bones in the rig. The roll angle is the bone’s rotation along its local Y-axis in pose mode. Letting the X-Axis Mirror feature handle things for you gives you a better chance of having correct roll angles on both sides of your character’s rig.
Taking advantage of parenting and constraints
What you currently have in place is the basic structure of the rig’s armature. The primary function of these bones is to deform the character mesh. Technically, you could animate with just these bones after you skin them to the mesh. However, you can (and should) add some additional bones to the armature to make it easier to animate. They work by taking advantage of the parenting set up by the bone chains and combining them with some reasonable constraints.
For example, you currently have a structured skeleton in place, but what happens if you Ctrl+Tab into Pose mode and grab the
body.1 bone and move it (G)? Because the entire upper body is directly or indirectly a child of this bone, the upper torso, arms, and head move with the
body.1 bone. Unfortunately, the lower half of the body doesn’t share this relationship, so as the next figure shows, you end up tearing Stickman’s skeleton in half. Ouch!
To compensate, you need a bone — called a root bone — that both the
body.1 bones relate to, binding the upper half of the body to the lower half. Moving this bone should move the entire armature. Adding a root bone to the rig is pretty simple:
Tab into Edit mode on the armature and switch to the side view (Numpad 3).
Select the head of either the
Both heads are located in the same place, so it doesn’t really matter which one you select.
- Extrude a new bone along the Y-axis (E→Y) and name it
Move in the positive Y direction, toward the back of Stickman.
- Parent the
hipbones to the
root, Ctrl+P→Keep Offset).
This parent relationship means that you can move the entire armature by just selecting and moving the root bone. Before creating this parent relationship, some people may choose to switch the direction of the root bone (W→Switch Direction) so that they can have the root bone’s tip actually connected to the heads of
hip. It’s all a matter of taste, but I prefer not to. Because bones naturally rotate around their head, it’s more useful to me to keep the head of the root bone in the center of the character. In my opinion, using this setup helps make bending at the waist look more natural.
- Select the
rootbone and disable the Deform check box in its Bone Properties.
This bone is intended purely to control the other bones. You don’t want any of the mesh’s vertices assigned to it. Your Stickman rig now looks something like this.
Another convenient control bone that you may want to add is a head control. Sure, you can rotate the head bone as you want, but using a bone as the head’s (or eyes’) target is often easier. That way, when you want the character to look at something, you just move the target bone to that something’s location. An added benefit is that by building your rig this way, you can successfully create complex moves, such as keeping the character looking at an object as he (or she) walks by it. To add a head control to your rig, you use a Track To constraint:
Tab into Edit mode and select the
headbone (Tab, right-click).
headbone and move it in the Y-axis (Shift+D→Y) and name it
The idea is that you want the control bone to be far enough in front of the face so that you can have some control without getting in the way of the rest of the rig. I moved mine about 3 units out.
- Clear the parent relationship on the
head_targetbone (Alt+P→Clear Parent).
head_target bone came into existence by duplicating the
head bone, it inherited the parent relationship to the
body.2 bone. You don’t want this relationship because you want to be able to move the head target independently of the rest of the rig.
Ctrl+Tab into Pose mode, select the
head_targetbone, and then also select the
headbone (right-click, Shift+right-click).
Add a Track To constraint to the
headbone (Shift+Ctrl+C→Track To).
This step automatically adds a Track To constraint to the
head bone’s Bone Constraints Properties and makes the bone a nice shade of green. Chances are good that the
head bone also rotates toward
head_target and points directly at it — not the behavior you want. You need to change the alignment axes that the constraint works on.
- In the Track To constraint, change the To axis to -Z and the Up axis to Y.
This step fixes the
head bone so that it points in the proper direction. Now when you grab (G) the
head_target bone and move it around, the face area of the
head bone always points at it.
- Select the
head_targetbone and disable the Deform check box in its Bone Properties.
Like the root bone, this bone isn’t intended to deform the mesh, so disabling the Deform button ensures that it doesn’t. The following figure shows what your rig looks like now.
Your Stickman is mostly functional now. However, another constraint is a staple of nearly all character rigs and is monumentally helpful to animators. It’s called an inverse kinematics, or IK, constraint. The next section goes into what this constraint does, how it works, and how to give your rig its benefits.
Comparing inverse kinematics and forward kinematics
When it comes to animating characters in 3D with an armature, you have two ways to move limbs around: inverse kinematics and forward kinematics, or IK and FK. Kinematic is just a fancy way of saying motion. By default, your rig is set up to use FK. Say that you have a bone chain, and you want to place the tip of the last bone to a specific location in 3D space. In order to do so, you have to rotate the first bone in the chain, and then the next, and then the next, and so on until you can get that last bone’s tip properly placed. You’re working your way forward along the bone chain, from the head to the tip. Because of the parenting relationships between the bones, you can currently use FK with your Stickman rig.
That’s FK. It gets the job done, but it can be awfully difficult and tedious to try to get the tip of that last bone exactly where you want it. It would be nice if you could just grab that tip, put it in place, and let the computer figure out how all the other bones have to bend to compensate. This method of letting the computer figure things out for you, basically, is the essence of IK. You move the tip of the last bone in the chain, and Blender works backward, from the tip to the head, along the chain to get the other bones properly placed.
To see what IK is like, select your Stickman armature and Ctrl+Tab into Pose mode. Now, select the
body.2 bone and press G to grab and move it. Notice that all the bone does is rotate; it doesn’t actually change its location. Now go to Pose Options panel in the Options Tab of the Tool Shelf and enable the Auto IK check box. Auto IK isn’t a real IK constraint, but it will help you understand how IK works.
Grab (G) and move the
body.2 bone. Notice that, now, this bone moves around, and the
body.1 bone rotates to compensate for the locations that you try to put
body.2. Selecting the
head bone or one of the
arm_lower bones results in similar behavior. Click around and play with Auto IK on your rig. It’s pretty cool. When you’re done, disable the Auto IK check box.
IK is really awesome stuff and it’s very powerful, but it’s not the ultimate solution for animating. See, one of the core principles of animation (as mentioned in Chapter 12 of Blender For Dummies, 3rd edition) is that natural movement happens in arcs. Generally speaking, arcing movement is more believable and, well, natural looking. Things that move in a straight line tend to look stiff and robotic. Think about how a person’s arms swing when walking. It doesn’t necessarily matter exactly where the hand is. The entire arm rotates and swings back and forth. That is FK movement. If you’re animating, you can easily re-create that motion by keying the rotation of the upper arm bone at the extreme ends of the action.
In contrast, IK movement tends to happen in a straight line. You’re just keying the tip of the chain, so that tip moves directly from one location to the next and the bones along the chain rotate to compensate. To re-create a swinging arm in IK, you need at least three keyframes: one at each extreme and one in the middle to keep the hand from going in a straight line. And even then, the elbow might flip the wrong direction, or you might need even more intermediary keys to try to get that smooth arc that you get automatically with FK.
However, where IK shines is when the tip of the bone chain needs to be precisely positioned. A perfect example is feet. When a person walks, the feet must touch the ground (if you can walk without touching the ground, I hear there are a number of superhero organizations with openings). Trying to achieve this effect with just FK usually ends up with feet that look floaty and not locked into place as the character moves.
Another example is if your character is holding on to a fixed object and doesn’t want to let go of it, like a climber on the edge of a cliff or a 3-year-old with an ice cream cone. You want to keep the hand in place and let the elbow bend naturally. In instances like these, IK is really helpful. The most common use, though, is for foot and leg rigs on characters. And to that end, you’re going to use the following steps to add IK controls to the Stickman rig:
- Tab into Edit mode on the armature and select the tip of the
You can actually select either the left or right bone. Because you should still have X-Axis Mirror enabled, whatever you do on one side also happens on the other. If X-Axis Mirror isn’t enabled, go ahead and re-enable it in the Options Tab of the Tool Shelf.
- Extrude a new bone in the Z-axis (E→Z).
You don’t have to extrude the new bone very far — just enough to know it’s there.
Name this bone
leg_IK.Land make sure that the mirrored bone is named
Clear the parent-child relationship between
Ctrl+Tab into Pose mode, select
leg_IK.L, and add
leg_lower.Lto the selection (right-click, Shift+right-click).
Add an IK constraint (Shift+I→To Active Bone).
You can also use the Shift+Ctrl+C→Inverse Kinematics hotkey. Both provide the same results: an IK constraint in
leg_lower.L’s Bone Constraints Properties.
- Go to the Bone Constrains panel and change the Chain Length value to 2.
By default, the IK bone chain goes all the way back to the head of the hipbone. You actually want it to have an influence only up to the head of the upper leg bone. That’s a chain length of two bones.
- Perform Steps 5 through 7 on leg_
Sadly, X-Axis Mirror works only in Edit mode, so you have to add your IK constraints on both sides on your own. If you have the Copy Attributes Add-on enabled (described in the eye rigging tutorial), you can use that method as well.
- Select the
leg_IK.Rbones and disable the Deform check box in each of their Bone Properties.
head_target bones, these control bones should not be used for skinning. At this point, you have a basic IK rig on your character’s feet. The rig looks something like this.
Test your rig by selecting the
root and moving it around, particularly up and down the Z-axis. The leg bones in your Stickman rig should bend all by themselves to compensate for the location of the
root bone relative to the IK bones. You can also select each of the
leg_IK bones and move them around to control the bending of each leg independent of the other.
In doing so, however, you may notice that on some occasions, the legs don’t quite know how to bend. They may randomly flip backward or roll out in odd angles. Aside from slightly bending the rig at the knees when you created the leg bones, you haven’t provided the legs with much of a clue as to how exactly they should bend. Fortunately, the solution is pretty simple. It’s called a pole target. To define a pole target, you need to create two more bones, one for each leg:
- Tab into Edit mode on Stickman’s armature and select
Again, because X-Axis Mirror is enabled and you’re in Edit mode, choosing either
leg_IK bone works fine.
Switch to side view, duplicate the bone, and move the new bone to somewhere in front of the knee (Numpad 3, Shift+D).
Name this bone
knee.Land make sure that the mirrored bone is named
Switch the direction of
This step isn’t essential. I just like to have my floating bones point upward.
leg_IK.L, Ctrl+P→Keep Offset).
Ctrl+Tab into Pose mode.
leg_lower.Land in its IK constraint panel (Bone Constraints Properties), choose your armature object in the Pole Target field and
knee.Lin the Bone field that appears.
This step defines
knee.L as the pole target for the left leg’s IK chain. However, the knee joint for the left leg may instantly pop to the side, bending the leg in all kinds of weird ways. The next step compensates for that problem.
- Still in
leg_lower.L’s IK constraint panel, adjust the Pole Offset value to 90 degrees.
This step causes the leg’s knee joint to properly point at the
knee.L bone. If it doesn’t, try adjusting the Pole Offset value until it looks correct. Usually this value is 0, 90, –90, or 180. The default behavior is to point
leg_lower.L’s local X-axis toward the pole. If the local X-axis isn’t forward, adjusting the offset compensates.
- Perform Steps 7 and 8 on
At this point, you have a fully configured IK rig for both of Stickman’s legs. You’re nearly ready to animate him.
For reference, your rig looks like the one in the following figure.
At this point, skinning the Stickman mesh to your armature should be pretty safe. Using the automatic weights method covered in Chapter 11 of Blender For Dummies, 3rd edition gives you the best results, so select the mesh (right-click), select the armature (Shift+right-click), and press Ctrl+P→With Automatic Weights. Now when you move around and pose your rig, the Stickman mesh obediently follows in kind.
Making the rig more user friendly
You have a great basic rig that you can start animating with immediately. However, you can make a few tweaks that make this rig even more usable.
You can change the way the bones display in the 3D View. Now that you’re done with the bulk of rigging, knowing which end of a bone is the head or the tail is a bit less important. Go to the Display panel in Armature Properties and change the bone type from Octahedral to Stick. Stick bones are the second-least obtrusive bones that are immediately available to you (the least obtrusive draw type for bones is the Wire type, but I find those bones can be a bit hard to see when animatig). Now you can see more of your mesh while you’re animating without as much clutter and geometry in the way. The following figure shows the Stickman rig with stick bones.
Another feature in Blender that is quite helpful for organizing your rigs is the ability to create bone groups. To do so, select the bones you want while in Pose mode and press Ctrl+G→Assign to New Group to group them together. If you try to do this a second time with another set of bones, you have four options:
Assign to New Group: Choosing this option adds the selected bones to a new bone group. If you have no bone groups already created, this is the only visible option.
Assign to Group: Choosing this option adds your selected bones to the active group in the list box within the Bone Groups panel of Armature Properties.
Remove Selected from Bone Groups: If the bones you have selected are part of any groups, choosing this option removes them from all bone groups.
Remove Bone Group: Choosing this option removes the group that is currently selected in the list box within the Bone Groups panel of Armature Properties. This option doesn’t remove the bones, just the group that they’re associated with.
You can rename your bone groups in the Bone Groups panel of Armature Properties. I used the bone groups feature to create groups for my main bone chains:
right leg, and
body. I left the
head_target bones groupless. Create your own groups as you see fit.
Beyond organization, using bone groups offers an additional benefit. You can define custom bone colors based on the bone groups you have. The controls are also in the Bone Groups panel. Make sure that the Colors check box is enabled within the Display panel and then, in the Bone Groups panel, left-click the Color Set drop-down menu and choose a theme color set from the menu that appears. I used this feature to make all my left-side bones green and my right-side bones red. It’s a good visual trick to let you or another animator quickly identify which bones are being used. The next figure shows what the Bone Groups panel looks like.
As an additional bonus, when you use bone group colors, those colors also get used in the channel regions of the Graph Editor and the Dope Sheet. So those colors aren’t just good for organizing your rig in the 3D View, they’re also extremely useful for staying organized in your animation editors. Besides groups, another organizational tool for making your rig more usable are bone layers. Bone groups make visualizing and selecting your bones easy. However, bone layers are a faster, more reasonable way of showing and hiding the bones in your rig.
As an example, have a look at Stickman’s legs. They’re entirely controlled by the
knee bones. Because you can see the Stickman mesh, you really don’t need to see the
leg_lower bones. In some ways, they just get in the way of seeing your character’s acting. In that case, moving the bones to a different layer and hiding that layer makes plenty of sense. Use Shift+right-click, Border Select (B), or press L with your mouse over the leg bones to select the entire leg chain and then press M to move them to a different layer. I moved the bones to the first layer in the second block of layers.
Now, if you ever want to see those bones, just go to the Armature panel and enable the layer there. In the meantime, though, as the last figure shows, your Stickman rig is much cleaner, and now you’re really ready to start animating.
Like this tutorial? It pairs really nicely with my book, Blender For Dummies, 3rd edition. It’s available anywhere books are sold. Thanks!